126 Aspergerís clients reviewed showed significant improvement (P < .001) on all measures.
Autistic Spectrum Disorders including Aspergerís Syndrome-
EEG & QEEG Findings, Results, and QEEG Findings, Results
& Neurophysiological Rationale
Michael Thompson, MD &, Lynda Thompson, PhD
ADD Centres Ltd., Biofeedback Institute of Toronto Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
Category: Research & Clinical Application
Introduction This paper reviews our EEG, QEEG and LORETA
findings which correspond to known functional neuroanatomical sites
associated with the symptoms of Aspergerís. We show how we use that
information to guide successful neurofeedback interventions. Theoretical
formulations arise from work with more than 1,000 autistic spectrum
clients and EEG neurofeedback analysis and results with more than 150 of
Method: Before neurofeedback we used medications,
behavior therapies, psychotherapies, education and speech therapies
(Thompson & Havelkova, 1982). When neurofeedback became available
clients were trained to decrease slow wave activity and beta spindling
and raise 13-15 Hz often at FCz. Pre and post testing (after 40
sessions) used the WISC, WRAT, TOVA, IVA, questionnaires and QEEG
changes. A selection of these clients has had 19 channel EEG assessments
and analysis using LORETA.
Results: 126 Aspergerís
clients reviewed showed significant improvement (P < .001) on all
measures. Brain maps were done on a sample of the clients. These
revealed low activation P4 T6 in Aspergerís cases and decreased
activation Cz and Pz in the Autistic group. LORETA showed anterior
cingulate Brodmann area 24 dysfunction in Aspergerís and dysfunction in
the posterior cingulate Brodmann area 31 and in the cuneus and precuneus
in the autistic cases.
Conclusion: Findings to
date suggest an axis of disturbed functioning (anterior and posterior
cingulate Brodmann areas 24, 31) often with high amplitude 3-10 Hz and
spindling beta (> 20 Hz) and low amplitude 13-18 Hz usually at FCz
(LORETA abnormalities seen in the cingulate, medial and orbital frontal
and/or prefrontal cortex). Similar findings are seen with anxiety
disorders. Aspergerís is unique in also having right temporal-parietal
cortex inactivity corresponding to sensory aprosodia. Beta spindling
suggests that the cortex is irritable, unstable and / or easily kindled.
Increasing sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) using neurofeedback has a
stabilizing effect (Sterman, 2000).