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Home > Perform > Sports
Golf research

Presentation of research at the 1997 Winter Brain Conference. 14 of 15 golfers reported significant improvement in golf scores.

Peak Performance EEG Training and The Game of Golf
Dan Chartier, Ph.D., Larry Collins, Ed.D., Darren Koons, M.A.

Data from pre- and post-training golf scores and Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores indicate EEG feedback training has a beneficial effect on golf skill development.   Fifteen subjects completed a two week series of 10 EEG training sessions and mind-body skill integration practice sessions.  The EEG training included a protocol (BrainLink =AE*) that provided audio feedback contingent on the simultaneous presence of three frequencies above a selected threshold.  The skill integration practice included: (1) visualization of perfect performance of a selected golf skill while maintaining targeted EEG activity and, (2) actual practice
of the skill while attempting to produce the mind-body state achieved  during the feedback training.

Fourteen of the participants reported significant improvement in their game as measured by comparison of pre- and post-training scores.  Twelve of  the participants completed pre- and post-training POMS.  The post training POMS results for 10 of those 12 subjects showed development of what is called an  "Iceberg Profile", a pattern of scores that typically is found in elite athletes.

In addition to improvement in their golf game and development of elite athlete mood states a number of participants also reported significant improvement in physical and mental health.  Although medical and psychological symptoms were not a focus of this study, several subjects reported improvement of troubling physical symptoms including muscle spasm pain and angina.  Reports of psychological changes included improved concentration and stress coping. 

The self reports of symptom improvement were supported by Symptom Checklist 90 results.   Comparison of SCL-90s completed before and after training show marked improvement on all scales with the obsessive-compulsive scale having the greatest change.
* BrainLink is a registered trademark of Advanced Neurotechnologies.


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